During geomagnetic storms different partial pressure gradients in the auroral ionosphere may result in H+, He+, O+ and molecular ions drifting with different velocities along the Earth’s magnetic field line. For relative drift velocities ⪡ 400 m s−1 it is shown that differential ion flows may be identified by two signatures in the autocorrelation function (ACF) measured by EISCAT. For larger relative drifts numerical simulations show that these signatures still exist and may result in an asymmetry in the incoherent scatter spectrum for O+ and molecular ions. It is demonstrated that UHF data can be reliably analysed for k2λD2 ≲ 1, but at high altitudes, where O+–H+ flows are expected, UHF observations will be restricted by large Debye lengths (k2λD2 > 1). Examples of ACFs based on polar wind theory are presented and discussed for the VHF system and finally it is shown that large ion temperature ratios (Ti(H+) >Ti(O+)) can significantly affect the velocity determination.
The influence of ice scour on benthic communities at three contrasting sites at Adelaide Island, Antarctica
Ice scouring is a key structuring force acting on high latitude shallow benthic communities. Despite its importance, detailed studies of scoured communities are still rare. Here we report the ecological effects of 12 iceberg impacts, across three contrasting study sites, at Adelaide Island, West Antarctic Peninsula. Grounded icebergs were marked with GPS and the newly formed scours (at 10-17 m depth) were sampled within 20 days of formation. Comparisons between scoured and adjacent unscoured assemblages were made using measures of abundance, biomass, taxon richness and the relative abundance of secondary consumers. Ice scouring was catastrophic at all sites, despite differences in substratum type, exposure and background community. Compared with undisturbed areas, scour assemblages were 95% lower in mean macrofaunal abundance and 75.9% lower in species richness. There was no general trend across all sites of ice scouring selecting for secondary consumers. The echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri and bivalve mollusc Mysella charcoti were highly abundant in undisturbed areas and were the biggest contributors to the observed differences between scours and undisturbed areas.
Exxon says court ruling proves the case was a ‘baseless investigation’Responding to the verdict, an Exxon spokeswoman said: “Today’s ruling affirms the position ExxonMobil has held throughout the New York attorney general’s baseless investigation.“We provided our investors with accurate information on the risks of climate change.“The court agreed that the attorney general failed to make a case, even with the extremely low threshold of the Martin Act in its favour.“Lawsuits that waste millions of dollars of taxpayer money do nothing to advance meaningful actions that reduce the risks of climate change.“ExxonMobil will continue to invest in researching breakthrough technologies to reduce emissions while meeting society’s growing demand for energy.” Exxon was hit by a $355m loss in its chemical business in 2019 (Credit: Brian Katt/Wikipedia) A New York court has ruled in favour of ExxonMobil in a landmark legal ruling covering its transparency to investors over the impact of climate change on its business.The lawsuit was brought against the US oil major by the office of New York State attorney general Letitia James – claiming the firm had misled investors over its evaluation of the financial risks posed by future climate regulations, causing up to $1.6bn in losses.But the ruling from New York State Supreme Court Justice Barry Ostrager stated that the case against Exxon had failed to provide sufficient evidence that fraudulent practices had taken place.On ruling, Justice Ostrager said: “The Office of the attorney general failed to prove, by a preponderance of the evidence, that ExxonMobil made any material misstatements or omissions about its practices and procedures that misled any reasonable investor.” The verdict clears the US oil major of allegations — brought by New York Attorney General Letitia James — that it misled investors over the true financial cost of carbon emissions New York State Supreme Court’s ruling on ExxonThe legal battle, which included testimony from former ExxonMobil chief executive and former secretary of state Rex Tillerson, was the culmination of a four-year probe into the company’s dealings.The New York State attempted to use the “Martin Act” on the firm, an anti-fraud law used to pursue financial crime that does not require prosecutors to prove a company intended to deceive investors.Exxon had been accused of using a dual pricing of the cost of carbon in its financial reporting – one for internal use and a second “proxy cost” for investors.The pricing was used to factor in the expected future impact of emission regulations on greenhouse gases.The oil major denied the charges brought by the New York court and was required to hand over millions of documents to prove its innocence.Despite the relatively low bar of the Martin Act, Justice Ostrager found the state’s claims to be “without merit” and the use of its securities law to be a stretch in this case.“The office of the attorney general produced no testimony either from any investor who claimed to have been misled by any disclosure, even though the office of the attorney general had previously represented it would call such individuals as trial witnesses,” he added.Justice Ostrager said that the testimony of all of the present and former Exxon employees called by either the state’s office or by the oil major itself as defence witnesses were “uniformly favourable” to Exxon.He found that the company had been transparent about the two different ways it calculated the costs in question. New York State’s response to Exxon case court rulingNew York attorney general Letitia James said in a statement that all investors are “entitled to the truth”, and that ExxonMobil had been “compelled to answer publicly for its internal decisions”.She added: “The oil giant never took seriously the severe economic impact that climate change regulations would have on the company, contrary to what they were telling the public.“Throughout this case, we laid out how Exxon made materially false, misleading, and confusing representations to the American people about the company’s response to climate change regulations.“Exxon’s inability to tell the truth further underscores the lies that have been sold to the American public for decades.“Despite this decision, we will continue to fight to ensure companies are held responsible for actions that undermine and jeopardise the financial health and safety of Americans across our country, and we will continue to fight to end climate change.”The US Securities and Exchange Commission previously began an investigation into Exxon’s climate reporting, but upon recommendation, the government agency decided to take no action against the oil major.
THE TRUMP TRANSITION TIZZYMaking Sense by Michael ReaganThe liberal media has been in a frenzy all week.It thinks Donald Trump and his transition team are taking too long to announce his cabinet picks and other appointees.Let me check my calendar.Yep. It’s been less than ten days since Trump shocked the world — and sickened the liberal media — by humiliating Hillary Clinton.And already the media are working as hard as they can to make Trump look like he doesn’t know what he’s doing —- before he doesn’t even do anything.I understand the liberal media’s pain. I understand they feel like their lives have been ruined for at least the next four years.I remember having similar thoughts in 2012, 2008, 1996, 1992 and 1976.But come on, MSNBC, CNN, ABC, etc., etc. Bill Clinton took his time picking his people. So did Bush II. So did my father. It’s part of the process.So let’s back off a little and give Trump a little slack. He’s got to drain a pretty big cesspool in Washington. He has 4,000 positions to fill.It’s been obvious for a long time he was not just going to make some phone calls and hire 3,993 Bush II administration alumni who’ve been making their livings as lobbyists for the last eight years.The tizzy over Trump’s supposedly slow transition process is just another step in the liberal media’s agenda —- which is “Dump on Trump.”First they were cutting their wrists over his election win. Now it’s his appointments. Wait till they see his Supreme Court picks.For the next four years, when it comes to President Trump, the liberal media are going to accentuate the negative, not the positive.As much as I wasn’t a supporter of Donald Trump in the primaries, I said after the convention that I wasn’t going to allow him to lose because I didn’t show up to vote for him.The fact is, I showed up and so did almost 70 million Americans.My hat’s off to Trump.He’s the president-elect. We Reagans support him. We had our time in the sun and now it’s time for Trump supporters to have theirs.Godspeed, President Donald. Whatever I can do to help, I’m there. No cabinet post would disappoint me.I hope he puts the right people around him. He’s done pretty well choosing people in the business world.And let’s face it. We conservatives and others have been saying for a long time we needed a businessman in White House.Last I looked, we were still $20 trillion in debt. Maybe President Trump can do something about that.I’ll bet he’ll surprise us. Everyday I get more and more respect for him. He stands his ground.Whether you agree with his positions or not, he stands his ground.The great thing about my dad was that he knew what he believed and knew why he believed it.I’m starting to feel that Trump knows what he believes, too, and he knows why he believes it, come hell or high water.Meanwhile, I have a tip for our impatient media.I’m not a journalist. But if I were, instead of doing dumb stories about why President-elect Trump is taking so long to make his picks, I’d start checking out the list of potential Supreme Court nominees he gave us.———FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmail
Dear editor:One is always glad to see the longest day of the year (solstice) arrive at last; but a little sad, too, realizing that every day thereafter will get a little shorter, right down to the winter solstice, six months from now, when Hoboken and all the northern latitudes are miserably short and dark and cold. We know that last Wednesday was the longest day of the year because those with a scientific turn of mind took the trouble to measure. Those with another type of mind would have noticed the days getting longer or shorter, lighter or darker, but would not have thought to mark where the sun cast a shadow every day. The scientific mind had it all figured out thousands of years ago.As they did when they looked into the sky at night and determined which bright dot was a planet and which a star. Others of our species saw the same sky, admired it, perhaps wrote a poem about it, but did not bother to stand on a rooftop night after night for years making notes.The scientific mind has given us a lot. Without an Edison, or a Tesla, no electricity. If all humanity had minds like poets, we’d still be reading Hamlet by candlelight. Just as ordinary folk could not possibly have calculated that the sun is 93 million miles away, so they would not have given a hoot how distant it is, so long as it shone on their daub and wattle houses every day.Ah, but without science we would not have the Bomb, either. Ordinary minds could not possibly have made such a thing. If unscientific people, despite turning the other cheek, could not avoid fighting with some knuckleheads over in the next village, their war would have been fought with sticks and arrows and spears, with few casualties, after which they would have smoked the Peace Pipe; resuming their humdrum lives of farming and weaving and thatching and lovemaking.Let’s hope our fools and psychopaths in high places, forever beating the war drums against Russia, who hate peace because there’s no profit in it, don’t drop their atom-schmattoms some fine day and fry us all,–scientific and ordinary minds alike.Sincerely, T. Weed
The Atlantic Ocean’s third tropical storm of 2015 is expected to live only a short life — none of it affecting Ocean City.Tropical Storm Claudette earned its name on Monday morning as winds reached a sustained 50 mph. But the system could become post-tropical as early as tonight as it heads toward cooler water.The storm was hundreds of miles from the East Coast (off the Delmarva Peninsula) on Monday afternoon and headed for the open water of the North Atlantic.Ocean City will not see wind, waves or rain from the distant storm.Local surf forecasters are, however, calling for good conditions and three- to four-foot waves on Wednesday from an unrelated front.None of the other two named storms, Ana and Bill, had any direct effect on Ocean City.
Read Full Story The Institute of Politics at Harvard Kennedy School announces the appointment of its Spring Resident Fellows.“We are very excited for the contributions that this diverse and inspiring class of fellows will make to students at the IOP and Harvard. Not only will they engage the campus in the most relevant political conversations of today, but they will also provide invaluable guidance and mentorship to students,” said Fellows program student co-chairs Abby Bloomfield ’20 and Shreeya Panigrahi ’19.2018 IOP Spring Resident Fellows are:Adam Conner has spent the last decade as the first Washington, D.C. employee for several Silicon Valley companies. Most recently, he was the first D.C. employee for Slack.Ed Gillespie is a former national and state Republican Party chair, White House counselor to President George W. Bush, top congressional aide, and Republican nominee for both the U.S. Senate and Governor in Virginia.Fred P. Hochberg recently concluded eight years of service as Chairman and President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (EXIM).Betsy Hodges was the 47th mayor of Minneapolis (2014–2018).Scott Jennings is a CNN contributor and founding partner of RunSwitch Public Relations in Louisville, KY.Symone Sanders is a CNN political commentator, strategist for Communications and Political Outreach at Priorities USA, and principal of the 360 Group LLC.
Today, women have the opportunity to earn more than ever. Historically, women have less to do with financial management than men, but that is changing. Still, there is a gender gap in financial literacy. Credit unions can help by reaching out to this underserved group and can help them become more financially engaged.A number’s gameThough women become more powerful drivers of the U.S. economy every day, financial stress is still an issue. According to a study done by financial education company Financial Finesse, middle- and low-income mothers reported the greatest financial stress among people of all different ages, gender and income levels.Despite societal advances, when it comes to finance there is still a gender gap. Fifty-five percent of women ages 30 to 55, with minor children and household incomes of less than $60,000 a year, reported “high” or “overwhelming” levels of financial stress. That is 40 percent more than similarly aged male parents in the same income group. In fact, 26 percent of men under 30 reported they have no financial stress at all. continue reading » ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
Three key credit union regulatory relief provisions were signed into law Friday by President Barack Obama. The provisions were passed as part of the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, which is a five-year, $305 billion highway funding package.“Friday the president signed legislation into law that contains the most significant regulatory relief measures for credit unions that we’ve seen pass Congress in nearly a decade,” said CUNA President/CEO Jim Nussle. “This is a huge victory for credit unions and the over 100 million credit union members CUNA represents.”The bill contains provisions that modernize privacy notification requirements, allow privately insured credit unions to join the Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) program and direct the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to establish a process for determining whether an area should be designated “rural,” which could impact the products credit unions in that area can offer.“Passage of these three provisions in both the House and Senate is a culmination of years of work by thousands of credit union advocates to help remove barriers and allow not-for-profit financial institutions to better serve their member owners,” Nussle added. continue reading » 16SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
Last year, our industry saw several legislative and regulatory victories. One of those wins modernized privacy notice rules, which fulfilled a key aspect of NAFCU’s five-point regulatory relief plan. We also saw important improvements with NCUA’s field-of-membership rules and member business lending rules.We made some excellent progress – but we’re not done yet.As 2016 begins, I’m confident that credit unions will achieve meaningful regulatory relief this year. That will be our primary focus in the months ahead.In particular, we’ll be closely watching the CFPB’s interest in regulating overdraft programs. We know credit unions and their members rely on overdraft programs and that credit unions run those programs responsibly. A recent NAFCU survey found that many credit unions fear that losing overdraft programs would force their members to seek out risky and expensive alternatives.Another area of concern is the implementation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act. NAFCU disagrees with the Federal Communications Commission’s interpretation of the law, which prohibits certain autodialed calls from financial institutions. We believe it will prevent credit unions from communicating quickly with their members about identity theft or data breaches. For that reason, NAFCU sued the FCC last fall to challenge its interpretation on behalf of credit unions. This year, we’ll fight for a fair reading of the law for our industry.In addition to regulatory relief, NAFCU will continue to fight for a national data security standard for retailers. Every week, we learn about a new data breach. Credit unions treat their members’ sensitive data carefully, but only Congress can force retailers and merchants act more responsibly.We know that more than five years after the Dodd-Frank Act, credit unions are still struggling to deal with the continuing onslaught of regulation – a crackdown intended for the big banks of Wall Street that has unfairly hurt credit unions in the process. We won’t stop our fight against overregulation, and we will continue to make credit unions’ voices heard loud and clear in Congress and at the regulatory agencies.On a final note, I thought you may want to know why we fight so hard for credit unions. Here’s why.NAFCU believes that credit unions are the best option for consumers. Period.We believe credit unions deserve the absolute best in advocacy, education and compliance assistance.We believe in providing NAFCU members “extreme member service.” Every. Single. Day.We believe you deserve an association that is frugal, efficient and effective when spending your dues dollars.We are not just a trade association. We believe in credit unions and their mission. 52SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Dan Berger B. Dan Berger became NAFCU president and CEO on Aug. 1, 2013. He joined NAFCU in January 2006 as senior vice president of government affairs overseeing five divisions including legislative … Web: www.nafcu.org Details