Now playing: Watch this: Spider-Man: Far From Home — Everything to know Now we just need the costumes from the Amazing Spider-Man movies, along with the homemade and black suits from the Raimi trilogy, and then the PS4 game’s cinematic wardrobe will be complete.That wasn’t the only surprise Sony had for PS4 gamers on Tuesday. It also added Detroit: Become Human to July’s selection of games for PS Plus subscribers.First published July 1 at 8:13 a.m. PT.Update, 9:10 a.m.: Adds more detail. 1:20 Share your voice Comments 28 Photos The 28 best games on PlayStation 4 Tags Marvel Spiderman Sony 2 Video Games TV and Movies Spider-Man’s new costumes, like the Upgraded Suit, from Far From Home were added to the PS4 game. Sony Spider-Man: Far From Home arrived in US and UK theaters Tuesday, but also surprised us by leaping into the PS4 game Marvel’s Spider-Man, in the form of two free costumes from the movie. The game, which is the sixth best-selling PS4 title, came out in September, so it’s cool that developer Insomniac Games is still adding stuff.You can swap costumes once you get to the point where Spidey starts wearing the Advanced Suit, the one with the white spider. Tuesday’s update then lets you swing around virtual Manhattan in the Upgraded Suit or the Stealth Suit.So you can see the Marvel Cinematic Universe movie, read our postcredits scene explainer, consider how it all impacts MCU’s upcoming Phase 4 and check out the costumes in the game. The game, by the way, takes place in a separate continuity to the MCU.You also get the Stealth Suit as part of the free download. Sony “While we’re busy working away here at Insomniac Games, we couldn’t pass up the opportunity to once again team up with Sony Interactive Entertainment, Marvel, and Sony Pictures Entertainment to celebrate the release of Spider-Man: Far From Home,” James Stevenson, Insomniac community director, said Tuesday in a blog post.These aren’t the first movie costumes we’ve seen in the game: The Homemade and Stark suits (seen in Captain America: Civil War and Spider-Man: Homecoming) and the Iron Spider armor (from Avengers: Infinity War and Endgame) were in the game at launch. The suit Peter Parker wore in Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse was added since then, as was the one from the Sam Raimi trilogy.
Citation: Energetics of the adsorption of ethanol on calcite nanoparticles (2015, April 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-energetics-adsorption-ethanol-calcite-nanoparticles.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Credit: Ben Mills via Wikimedia Commons Nanoparticles have a high surface energy in which organic molecules readily self-assemble on their surface. When organic or biological molecules self-assemble on a nanoparticle, they will often form a type of shell that has its own unique shape and properties. This shell can mask the nanoparticle, changing an inorganic compound, like calcite, into a hydrophobic particle. It also protects the nanoparticle from its environmental surroundings. This is known as organic ligand capping.Prior research has shown that ethanol adsorbs onto calcite by first forming a self-assembled monolayer on the surface in which the hydroxyl group is anchored to the calcite and the hydrophobic tail is oriented outward, forming an organic ligand cap. There is evidence that a second ethanol layer forms, interacting with the hydrophobic tails of the first layer, but there is little quantitative evidence for this two-layer process. This study is the first to report the thermodynamic energetics of these interactions.Wu and Navrotsky accomplish these measurements using direct gas adsorption calorimetry, a technique that was first developed in Navrotsky’s lab. For this study, they used ethanol vapor and four nanocalcite samples of varying particle size.Graphical display of the number of molecules adsorbed as pressure increases shows that the ethanol-calcite system for each type of calcite are type I isotherms. This means that there is an initial adsorption process (chemisorption) that is energetically favored. The differential enthalpy of adsorption per number of ethanol molecules per surface area of calcite (nm2) indicates that the initial interaction of ethanol with the clean surface is the most exothermic (-121.2 +/- 2.4 kJ/mol ethanol) followed by a significantly less exothermic process for the second layer of ethanol molecules. The shape of this enthalpy curve has two distinct plateaus. The first is the initial adsorption of ethanol onto a clean calcite surface, which terminates at about 3.5 ethanol molecules at an enthalpy of 98.3 +/- 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol, in close agreement with theoretical models. Then there is evidence of weak intermediate chemisorption followed by another, less exothermic interaction at the second plateau, at a value less than the condensation of ethanol, which is −42.3 kJ/mol, at 25 °C. The second plateau is likely due to a second, less ordered layer interacting with the hydrophobic ends of the ordered monolayer. Explore further (Phys.org)—Biomineralization, oil recovery, textiles, and catalysis all rely on organic-inorganic interactions with calcite, the most common polymorph of CaCO3. Over the last five years, there has been substantial research discussing qualitative properties of organics adsorbed onto calcite, but little by way of quantitatively determining the thermodynamic interaction between an organic adsorbate and calcite. Di Wu and Alexandra Navrotsky of the University of California, Davis investigated the thermodynamics of ethanol adsorption onto various calcite nanoparticles in an effort to elucidate the organic-inorganic interface and find general properties that could apply to more complex systems. Their work appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Microbe produces ethanol from switchgrass without pretreatment Prior research suggests that there is a spatially thin gap with low ethanol density between the first adsorbed monolayer and the bulk alcohol. Wu and Navrotsky’s thermodynamic data support this model, and suggests that the newly formed hydrophobic nanoparticle may induce short-range order in the bulk solution up to 2 nm beyond the surface of the nanoparticle.In experiments comparing adsorption of ethanol on calcite versus water on calcite, both ethanol and water show an initial, highly exothermic interaction. Both have hydroxyl groups available to adsorb onto calcite, making it reasonable to assume that the initial adsorption onto clean calcite would be similar for both. After this first phase, both become less exothermic; however, ethanol will display a second plateau, providing a step-wise curve, while the curve for water shows only one gradual inflection. Additionally, entropy and free energy calculations for both water and ethanol showed a similarly shaped curve as the enthalpy graphs, and both became less negative as more molecules were adsorbed. However, ethanol preferentially binds to the calcite at low partial pressures, which is likely due to entropy effects.These experiments reveal uniformity among the different types of calcite. Despite differences in size and surface area, they apparently have energetically similar binding sites. All showed a strong initial adsorption followed by evidence of a thin gap and a less ordered layer, and suggests that this type of interaction could be generalized for more complex organic molecules, such as proteins, on a calcite nanoparticle surface. Furthermore, the tight capping of organic ligands may serve as a protective barrier to the nanoparticle core. Aside from providing insight into biological systems, researchers may be able to exploit these properties to make nanoscale devices. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org More information: “Probing the energetics of organic-nanoparticle interactions of ethanol on calcite” Di Wu and Alexandra Navrotsky, PNAS, www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/04/08/1505874112AbstractKnowing the nature of interactions between small organic molecules and surfaces of nanoparticles (NP) is crucial for fundamental understanding of natural phenomena and engineering processes. Herein, we report direct adsorption enthalpy measurement of ethanol on a series of calcite nanocrystals, with the aim of mimicking organic–NP interactions in various environments. The energetics suggests a spectrum of adsorption events as a function of coverage: strongest initial chemisorption on active sites on fresh calcite surfaces, followed by major chemical binding to form an ethanol monolayer and, subsequently, very weak, near-zero energy, physisorption. These thermochemical observations directly support a structure where the ethanol monolayer is bonded to the calcite surface through its polar hydroxyl group, leaving the hydrophobic ends of the ethanol molecules to interact only weakly with the next layer of adsorbing ethanol and resulting in a spatial gap with low ethanol density between the monolayer and subsequent added ethanol molecules, as predicted by molecular dynamics and density functional calculations. Such an ordered assembly of ethanol on calcite NP is analogous to, although less strongly bonded than, a capping layer of organics intentionally introduced during NP synthesis, and suggests a continuous variation of surface structure depending on molecular chemistry, ranging from largely disordered surface layers to ordered layers that nevertheless are mobile and can rearrange or be displaced by other molecules to strongly bonded immobile organic capping layers. These differences in surface structure will affect chemical reactions, including the further nucleation and growth of nanocrystals on organic ligand-capped surfaces.
Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals Register Now » Our brilliant tech companies do everything from making us smarter to protecting our families and recharging our phones. 1. Looklive’s specialized technology identifies where you can purchase the exact items of clothing worn by your favorite characters and stars.2. Technology Will Save Us creates DIY kits to boost tech literacy in kids — and get them ready for the jobs of the future.3. Ubeam releases its first product this year — a transmitter to automatically recharge smartphones — but its long-term plan is to power the Internet of Things. 4. Detroit-based Identilock aims to curtail the thousands of accidental shootings that happen annually in the U.S. Its biometric clasp allows a gun’s trigger to release only when matched with the owner’s fingerprint.5. Paribus tracks your online purchases via your emailed receipts — and if the price on a recently purchased item changes, it follows stores’ policies to file for a price adjustment. 6. Identified Technologies uses drones for mapping and site monitoring, serving clients in construction and energy. It immediately uploads its data to the cloud for customer analysis.7. Fetch Robotics, which recently completed a $20 million round of Series A funding, uses two robots (named Fetch and Freight) to streamline warehouse operations, accelerating pulls and shipping. 8. Knewton’s adaptive learning platform is free to teachers, students and parents, and tracks students’ learning to deliver programs based on their personal progress.9. Augmented and virtual reality startup Magic Leap has raised nearly $1.42 billion for its highly anticipated technology: glasses that seamlessly blend computer-generated images with the real world. 10. Jukedeck’s artificial intelligence technology can compose custom, affordable, royalty-free music soundtracks for video and podcast projects. Check out more companies on the 2016 Brilliant 100 list. 2 min read May 25, 2016 Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. This story appears in the June 2016 issue of Entrepreneur. Subscribe »
Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. July 19, 2017 If you’re traveling in the United States, don’t expect to have great cell service. A recent study by Speedtest revealed the major airports with the best and worst cell service across the U.S., Canada, Mexico and Central America. The verdict? There’s only one city in the states where travelers can expect fast service.Of the surveyed 30 airports, Detroit’s airport takes third place with fastest cell service across the continent — the only U.S. airport making it to the top five. And while Detroit is the U.S. leader when it comes to airport cell service, airports throughout Canada rule the charts.Related: Here Are the Airports With the Best and Worst Wi-FiVancouver comes in first place with the fastest cellular speed at a North American airport. However, if you’re looking to take advantage of the fast network, it’s important to note that you may only be able to download items through your cell data. Speedtest also researched and compared downloading and uploading speeds via cellular data and recorded them in megabits per second (Mbps). The firm discovered downloading to be far faster than uploading. In fact, Vancouver’s average download speed (59.84 Mbps) is more than twice as fast as its uploading capabilities (24.6 Mbps).The case is the same for the airport with the second fastest cellular service — Toronto also offers travelers incredible downloading speeds through cell service (56.63 Mbps), but slower speeds when it comes to uploading (19.08 Mbps).Related: 10 Ways to Travel the World Without Breaking the BankAfter Detroit, the next U.S. airport on the list is San Francisco International Airport, coming in at number six. Although, compared to airports such as Vancouver and Toronto, there’s a major drop in average downloading and uploading speeds. On average, San Francisco’s downloading speed scores a 30.80 — 29.04 Mbps slower than Vancouver’s.Here are the top five airports with the best cellular service.Vancouver (YVR)Toronto (YYZ)Detroit (DTW)Calgary (YYC)Montreal (YUL) Register Now » 2 min read Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals