Fellow South Africans,I am greatly saddened to announce that 67 South Africans died and scores of others sustained injuries, after a building at the Synagogue Church of All Nations collapsed on Friday, 12 September 2014, in Lagos, in the Federal Republic of Nigeria.This is a particularly difficult time for South Africa. Not in the recent history of our country have we had this large number of our people die in one incident outside the country.Our thoughts are with the families, friends and colleagues that have lost their loved ones in this heartbreaking tragedy. The whole nation shares the pain of the mothers, fathers, daughters and sons who have lost their loved ones. We are all in grief.As we mourn this sudden and tragic death of our fellow compatriots, I have directed the relevant government departments and entities to act with the utmost urgency to ensure that we facilitate the movement of relevant family members to Nigeria to identify the bodies of their loved ones and to ensure that we repatriate the remains as soon as possible under the circumstances.I would like to take this opportunity also to thank all family members and friends who have provided information to government, which has assisted the South African High Commission in Nigeria in its efforts to locate our fellow citizens.I would also like to commend all affected families for their patience and resolve during this very painful period.On behalf of the Government and the people of South Africa, I would like to thank the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for its support during this difficult time. We also send our sincere condolences to the people of Nigeria and all other nations affected by this tragedy.I would like to assure all affected families that the Government will provide all the necessary support.Government will keep the public informed of developments around this tragedy.May the souls of the departed compatriots rest in peace.I thank you.Related links:http://www.southafrica.info/global/reconnectsouthafrica/
South Africa’s unemployment rate fell to 25% in the second quarter of the year, Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) said yesterday. “The unemployment rate decreased by 1.4% to 25% between the first and second quarters of 2015,” statistician-general Pali Lehohla said as he released the results of the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS) for the period. According to Lehohla, since 2011, there has been growth in employment even though it fluctuates. The QLFS showed that unemployment declined by 305 000 on a quarterly basis. It found that South Africa’s working age population was at 36 million, with 15.7 million being employed, 5.2 million being unemployed and 15.1 million being not economically active. The formal sector accounted for the largest share of employment at 69.2%, while agriculture accounted for the lowest share at 5.6%. Employment growth was largely supported by a rise of 177 000 jobs in the informal sector on a quarterly basis. Employment in the formal sector of the economy increased by 39 000. According to the report, large quarterly gains were seen in the community and social services at 98 000, construction at 79 000 and trade at 73 000 industries. Job losses were recorded in the finance, manufacturing and agriculture industries at 31 000, 23 000 and 22 000, respectively. Around 16% of the not economically active population was accounted for by discouraged work-seekers, while more than 80% were due to other reasons, such as student and home-maker. Source: SAnews.gov
The Nyuntam Aay Yojana (NYAY) or minimum income guarantee scheme, a key promise in the Congress manifesto for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, is set to make its first appearance in Chhattisgarh.Under directions of the party high command, the Chhattisgarh government is likely to launch a pilot project for the scheme. Chief Minister Bhupesh Baghel last week met Congress interim president Sonia Gandhi. K. Raju, who headed the office of former party president Rahul Gandhi, was in Raipur to brief Mr. Baghel about the scheme.NYAY was the corner stone of the Congress campaign with the slogan — Ab Hoga Nyay (now there will be justice). The manifesto had a image of an old woman hugging Mr. Gandhi with the tag line – Garibi par waar (strike on poverty) while guaranteeing ₹72,000 per annum to the poor.Push to rural economyIn the run up to the election Mr. Gandhi had variously referred to NYAY as a “surgical strike” on poverty, a “diesel for the engine of Indian economy” and “remonetising the economy” through the scheme. He often pitted this against Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s claim in 2014 Lok Sabha election campaign of depositing ₹15 lakh in every Indian’s account by bringing back the black money stashed abroad. However, the party was unable to create a buzz about the scheme.The Chhattisgarh pilot promises to ₹72000 per annum to 20% of the poorest families of the State. The Congress has been repeatedly claiming that this kind of fund input is essential to keep the economy afloat. Launching the scheme in Chattisgarh, an insider said, is a way to keep it alive.“We are discussing it within the party and it is under consideration. It will begin as a pilot project in a small area at first just the way we started a pilot project against malnutrition in Bastar to begin with and will expand it to the rest of the State on October 2,” Mr. Baghel told The Hindu.Mr. Baghel said after final discussions with the party high command and State leaders, the modalities will be charted out.The scheme was a result of closed door meetings with many economists, Rajeev Gowda, convenor of the Congress manifesto committee said. NYAY was distilled down from the idea to provide Universal Basic Income which was seen as fiscally impractical.Mr. Gowda stressed that in the current economic scenario NYAY becomes even more relevant to inject financial fluidity. “Rural income has been stagnant if not negative over last few years. This provides them basic level of support that will free them up from worrying about mere survival and to be able to think about other things like health, education and whole bunch of other things,” Mr Gowda said.
(Leo Baskatawang in the shadow of peace tower after cross-country walk with Indian act chained to his body. APTN/Photo)APTN National NewsOTTAWA–After 135 days walking across the country, Leo Baskatawang, an Iraq war veteran, climbed the stairs to Parliament Hill Tuesday dragging a copy of the Indian Act attached to his waist by a length of chain.Baskatawang, who did two tours of Iraq with the U.S. military, said the end of his 4,400 kilometre journey, under the name March for Justice which began in Vancouver, was really the beginning of a new movement to scrap the Indian Act and replace it with Indigenous authored legislation to define the relationship with Canada.“This is not the end of it,” said Baskatawang, 32. “I don’t think this will be the last time you hear of March for Justice. I think this will be an ongoing thing.”He ended his journey with five other companions who he met at stops at places like Winnipeg and Thunder Bay.Edmond Jack, 17, from Grassy Narrows First Nation in Ontario, is no stranger to long journeys. Two months ago, he walked from his community on the western edge of Ontario to Toronto to press for compensation over mercury that poisoned his people’s waters and land.“When they told me what they were walking for to change the Indian Act and get legitimate representation in the government I thought it was a good place to learn more about the Indian Act,” said Jack. “I jumped right away and said I was going to join them.”Every step of the way, Baskatawang and his companions dragged a copy of the Indian Act, the piece of legislation dating back to 1876 that governs the life of First Nations people living on-reserve.“I recognize the need for change with how the government consistently treats our people with apathy, ignoring the issues that are affecting our communities,” he said. “I felt a strong obligation as a scholar to do something about it.”The relentlessness of the pavement destroyed up to 40 of their copies, said Baskatawang. Once on Parliament Hill, Baskatawang, accompanied by dozens of his supporters, piled the remaining copies of the Indian Act, each contained in haggard and torn binders covered in duct tape, on the steps below the Peace Tower.The meaning behind the imagery of the beaten copies of the Indian Act dragged across the country by Baskatawang was not lost on Saskatchewan Conservative MP Rob Clarke who was on Parliament Hill in support of March for Justice.“He has gone through so many copies and just seeing how passionate he is, seeing how he sees the Indian Act being so archaic and outdated,” said Clarke. “What he has done is he raised awareness across Canada and in the communities. He is very passionate about wanting to get rid of the Indian Act and now you have membership out there saying it’s time to get rid of the Indian Act.”Clarke is behind a private member’s bill to repeal sections of the Indian Act dealing with residential schools, governing wills and a ban on prairie First Nations from freely selling agricultural products. The proposed bill, which was introduced in late spring, would also require the minister of Aboriginal affairs to report yearly on work to replace sections of the Indian Act with modern amendments or legislation.Clarke, an 18-year member of the RCMP and member of the Muskeg Lake First Nation in Saskatchewan, said his support for Baskatawang had nothing to do with his private member’s bill.“Everyone knows this isn’t about my private member’s bill today, I am here to support Leo and his cause,” said Clarke.Baskatawang said he welcomed Clarke’s support even if he didn’t agree with the Conservative MP’s proposed bill.“The important thing is he’s bringing the discussion on the Indian Act front and centre. But for me, personally, I would take it a step further,” he said. “Any piece of legislation that replaces the Indian Act should be written by Indigenous people. If there is going to be a piece of legislation that is going to be written about our people, it should be written by our people.”Baskatawang, an Anishinaabe from Lac des Mille Lacs First Nation, has seen his own people lose their land as a result of government action and inaction.His community had its reserve lands flooded by development in the 1950s, forcing residents to abandon their territory in Ontario’s north-west. Some now live in Thunder Bay, but many are scattered across the country. Lac des Mille Lacs First Nation is still a registered band with a membership list of about 500 members.Baskatawang joined the U.S. military in his early 20s before the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. He served two tours in Iraq with the 101st Airborne Division from March 2003 to February 2004 and October 2005 to September 2006.Despite his war experience, Baskatawang said he could not have finished his cross-country walk without the help of his companions and the kindness of strangers along the road offering a bowl of soup and a place to rest in the evenings.“It wasn’t easy. Every single day there were ups and downs. We were battling fatigue and sore feet,” he said. “The last week of the march was really, really hard, my feet were really torn up. I was able to lean on my team to help me get to the finish life. I couldn’t have done it without them.”
APTN National NewsProtesters against Kinder Morgan on Burnaby Mountain in British Columbia say they are just ramping up their efforts to stop the company from doing its work.Now, in its third week, support is growing and although there have been over 80 arrests, people from all over are coming to the mountain to show their support.APTN’s Tina House has this story.
WILMINGTON, MA — Jesse Fennelly, Jay Samaha, and incumbent Jo Newhouse are running for the three seats up for grabs in this year’s School Committee race.Despite running unopposed, Wilmington Apple felt it was important for readers to get to know the candidates a bit more. Wilmington Apple is asking the candidates weekly questions leading up to the April 27 Town Election.This week’s question: Describe your past & present involvement with Wilmington Public Schools and in the Wilmington community.Below are the candidates’ responses, in their own words:Jesse FennellyCurrently, I am a member of the Wilmington Historical Commission; a member of the Wilmington Democratic Town Committee; a member of the Board of Directors at WCTV; and served as campaign treasurer and adviser for David Robertson during his campaign to be our State Representative. All of these positions are things I am very proud of and very proud to be associated with. It allows me to be in touch with the community and give back the best way I can.As for my involvement with the schools, I have been closely following the School Committee for the past few years. I attended many of the community events and interviews during the superintendent search and was impressed with the diligence of all those involved. I was recently appointed to the Strategic Planning Committee that Dr. Brand formed, so I am working with others from the community, including teachers, administrators and other parents to chart the course the school department will take over the next few years. Serving on the Strategic Planning Committee has been an amazing experience. I’ve been able to witness firsthand the dedication and passion of many of our administrators and educators. I hope to have the opportunity to build on this as a member of the School Committee.Jesse FennellyJo Newhouse (Incumbent)It has been my privilege to serve on a myriad of volunteer and civic organizations since moving to Wilmington in 2005.I found it particularly gratifying to volunteer as a member of the Special Education Parent Advisory Committee (SEPAC) for six years, and I served as co-chair of the Committee for three of the six years, until August 2018 when I was appointed to fill a vacant seat on the School Committee. On the SEPAC, I set the monthly agendas and researched special education issues to be addressed with the School Administration. I worked collaboratively with school administrators and volunteers to coordinate numerous workshops each year. These workshops educate, inform and support parents, school personnel and the community with regard to special education issues and services. The workshops included “Basic Rights In Special Education,” “An IEP for My Child,” “Anxiety in Elementary Children,” “Google Tools for Special Education” and “Understanding Dyslexia,” to name a few. As a SEPAC representative, I also attended numerous school open houses to discuss issues of concern with parents, teachers and administrators, and participated in the District Coordinated Program Review. With the support of the SEPAC Committee, I am proud to have been actively involved in making monthly support meetings available for guardians of students with special needs.In addition to being involved with the schools in an official capacity, I have enjoyed volunteering a good deal of time as a parent. I have volunteered regularly at the Wildwood, Woburn Street and North Intermediate Schools, to assist where needed, whether it be in the library or classrooms, covering lunches in the classroom, leveling books for classrooms, at field days or on field trips. Currently, I am proud to be the parent representative on the Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) team at the North Intermediate School.I served as the co-chair of the Wildwood PAC for three years, and I have been serving as the Enrichment Coordinator of the Northside PAC for the last three years. In this capacity I have organized numerous enrichment programs for the children and various teacher luncheons. I also have coordinated book fairs to raise money to purchase books for both the library and the classrooms to support the Readers Workshop curriculum.In the past, I volunteered as a member of the Homework Policy Committee, District Advisory Committee, Anti-Bullying Committee, and the Wildwood/Boutwell SAC. I have also served on multiple interview committees to evaluate and vet candidates for both teaching and administrative positions within the Wilmington School District.My volunteer activities have extended beyond the School system, to the Wilmington Community at large. For example, I have served as the treasurer of Local Heroes, a wonderful organization that supports our active military personnel, veterans and their families in a variety of ways. I also served as a board member and treasurer of the Women of Wilmington (“WOW”) organization, before it transformed into the We’re One Wilmington, and for a time, I served as the Wilmington Mom’s Club president. Last, but certainly not least, my husband and I are proud supporters of Autism Speaks and the Make-A-Wish Foundation.Thank you for the opportunity to share my past and present involvement in the Wilmington community.Jo NewhouseJay SamahaMy wife, Amanda and I moved to Wilmington in 2011 with our twins, Nick and Avis. Since that time we have grown to love Wilmington and all that it offers. We have enjoyed a variety of activities such as Fun on the Fourth, the Memorial Day Parade, the Wilmington 5K and Half-Marathon, and School Concerts. Wilmington has been very open and welcoming and that is one of the reasons I have so much pride in my town.One of the reasons we moved to Wilmington was because of full day kindergarten and the CARES before and after-school program. Nick and Avis participated and enjoyed Cares from kindergarten at the Wildwood School to fifth grade at the North Intermediate School.My children have been active in town sports and other programs. When my son, Nick, was in first grade I volunteered to coach his T-Ball team. I continued to coach, along with my wife, my daughter, Avis, in both in-town soccer, travel soccer, town recreational basketball, and Wilmington Travel Basketball. My son was involved in Cub Scout pack 361 for 5 years and crossed over to BSA Troop 136. During scouting I volunteered on numerous field trips and events.Most recently I was a member of the Wilmington Middle School Principal Search Committee. This experience gave me great insight into the schools and is one of the driving forces behind my run for school committee.Jay SamahaLike Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email email@example.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedA VOTER’S GUIDE To The Wilmington School Committee RaceIn “Government”SCHOOL COMMITTEE NOTEBOOK: 5 Things That Happened At Recent School Committee MeetingIn “Education”VIDEO: School Committee Member Jo Newhouse Discusses Her Campaign With WCTVIn “Videos”
Citation: Energetics of the adsorption of ethanol on calcite nanoparticles (2015, April 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-energetics-adsorption-ethanol-calcite-nanoparticles.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Credit: Ben Mills via Wikimedia Commons Nanoparticles have a high surface energy in which organic molecules readily self-assemble on their surface. When organic or biological molecules self-assemble on a nanoparticle, they will often form a type of shell that has its own unique shape and properties. This shell can mask the nanoparticle, changing an inorganic compound, like calcite, into a hydrophobic particle. It also protects the nanoparticle from its environmental surroundings. This is known as organic ligand capping.Prior research has shown that ethanol adsorbs onto calcite by first forming a self-assembled monolayer on the surface in which the hydroxyl group is anchored to the calcite and the hydrophobic tail is oriented outward, forming an organic ligand cap. There is evidence that a second ethanol layer forms, interacting with the hydrophobic tails of the first layer, but there is little quantitative evidence for this two-layer process. This study is the first to report the thermodynamic energetics of these interactions.Wu and Navrotsky accomplish these measurements using direct gas adsorption calorimetry, a technique that was first developed in Navrotsky’s lab. For this study, they used ethanol vapor and four nanocalcite samples of varying particle size.Graphical display of the number of molecules adsorbed as pressure increases shows that the ethanol-calcite system for each type of calcite are type I isotherms. This means that there is an initial adsorption process (chemisorption) that is energetically favored. The differential enthalpy of adsorption per number of ethanol molecules per surface area of calcite (nm2) indicates that the initial interaction of ethanol with the clean surface is the most exothermic (-121.2 +/- 2.4 kJ/mol ethanol) followed by a significantly less exothermic process for the second layer of ethanol molecules. The shape of this enthalpy curve has two distinct plateaus. The first is the initial adsorption of ethanol onto a clean calcite surface, which terminates at about 3.5 ethanol molecules at an enthalpy of 98.3 +/- 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol, in close agreement with theoretical models. Then there is evidence of weak intermediate chemisorption followed by another, less exothermic interaction at the second plateau, at a value less than the condensation of ethanol, which is −42.3 kJ/mol, at 25 °C. The second plateau is likely due to a second, less ordered layer interacting with the hydrophobic ends of the ordered monolayer. Explore further (Phys.org)—Biomineralization, oil recovery, textiles, and catalysis all rely on organic-inorganic interactions with calcite, the most common polymorph of CaCO3. Over the last five years, there has been substantial research discussing qualitative properties of organics adsorbed onto calcite, but little by way of quantitatively determining the thermodynamic interaction between an organic adsorbate and calcite. Di Wu and Alexandra Navrotsky of the University of California, Davis investigated the thermodynamics of ethanol adsorption onto various calcite nanoparticles in an effort to elucidate the organic-inorganic interface and find general properties that could apply to more complex systems. Their work appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Microbe produces ethanol from switchgrass without pretreatment Prior research suggests that there is a spatially thin gap with low ethanol density between the first adsorbed monolayer and the bulk alcohol. Wu and Navrotsky’s thermodynamic data support this model, and suggests that the newly formed hydrophobic nanoparticle may induce short-range order in the bulk solution up to 2 nm beyond the surface of the nanoparticle.In experiments comparing adsorption of ethanol on calcite versus water on calcite, both ethanol and water show an initial, highly exothermic interaction. Both have hydroxyl groups available to adsorb onto calcite, making it reasonable to assume that the initial adsorption onto clean calcite would be similar for both. After this first phase, both become less exothermic; however, ethanol will display a second plateau, providing a step-wise curve, while the curve for water shows only one gradual inflection. Additionally, entropy and free energy calculations for both water and ethanol showed a similarly shaped curve as the enthalpy graphs, and both became less negative as more molecules were adsorbed. However, ethanol preferentially binds to the calcite at low partial pressures, which is likely due to entropy effects.These experiments reveal uniformity among the different types of calcite. Despite differences in size and surface area, they apparently have energetically similar binding sites. All showed a strong initial adsorption followed by evidence of a thin gap and a less ordered layer, and suggests that this type of interaction could be generalized for more complex organic molecules, such as proteins, on a calcite nanoparticle surface. Furthermore, the tight capping of organic ligands may serve as a protective barrier to the nanoparticle core. Aside from providing insight into biological systems, researchers may be able to exploit these properties to make nanoscale devices. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org More information: “Probing the energetics of organic-nanoparticle interactions of ethanol on calcite” Di Wu and Alexandra Navrotsky, PNAS, www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/04/08/1505874112AbstractKnowing the nature of interactions between small organic molecules and surfaces of nanoparticles (NP) is crucial for fundamental understanding of natural phenomena and engineering processes. Herein, we report direct adsorption enthalpy measurement of ethanol on a series of calcite nanocrystals, with the aim of mimicking organic–NP interactions in various environments. The energetics suggests a spectrum of adsorption events as a function of coverage: strongest initial chemisorption on active sites on fresh calcite surfaces, followed by major chemical binding to form an ethanol monolayer and, subsequently, very weak, near-zero energy, physisorption. These thermochemical observations directly support a structure where the ethanol monolayer is bonded to the calcite surface through its polar hydroxyl group, leaving the hydrophobic ends of the ethanol molecules to interact only weakly with the next layer of adsorbing ethanol and resulting in a spatial gap with low ethanol density between the monolayer and subsequent added ethanol molecules, as predicted by molecular dynamics and density functional calculations. Such an ordered assembly of ethanol on calcite NP is analogous to, although less strongly bonded than, a capping layer of organics intentionally introduced during NP synthesis, and suggests a continuous variation of surface structure depending on molecular chemistry, ranging from largely disordered surface layers to ordered layers that nevertheless are mobile and can rearrange or be displaced by other molecules to strongly bonded immobile organic capping layers. These differences in surface structure will affect chemical reactions, including the further nucleation and growth of nanocrystals on organic ligand-capped surfaces.
Kolkata: IIT Kharagpur is willing to work with the Bengal government on its Kanyashree project and provide technological upgradation for further enhancement of the quality of learning for girls.”We have developed National Digital Library of India (NDLI) where all types of books are available in a single platform. If we can integrate this digital library with the Kanyashree project, we will be able to assess the progress of education of girls and accordingly provide them with the correct input to enhance their education level,” IIT Kharagpur director Dr Partha Pratim Chakrabarti said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHe further maintained that IIT KGP has come up with a research centre for Artificial Intelligence (AI) on its Kharagpur campus and is coming up with another centre for emerging technologies like AI, Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning at Rajarhat.”Emerging technologies like AI can be used in Kanyashree project and this will improve learning, hence, contribute to the development of a girl child in the real sense of the term. We want to contribute in a big way to this development so we are looking forward to work with the Bengal government,” Chakrabarti said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe project, which was rolled out in March 2013, presently has 4,84,8970 beneficiaries. IIT Kharagpur had once extended their help when there was a problem in the smooth functioning of the project.Kanyashree is the pet project of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee for the upliftment of girls from the poor families and enables them to pursue higher studies, which they are unable to do due to economic constraints. It is a targeted conditional cash transfer scheme aimed at retaining girls in schools and other educational institutions. It also aims towards skill development and prevent child marriage. The United Nations in June last year awarded the Bengal government for its “Kanyashree” scheme.The project won the first place for Public Service at the World Forum out of a total of 552 projects from 62 countries, which were nominated for the award.
Confidence is the key to making successful and creative leaders which may directly translate into good performance by their subordinates, says a study that examined productive teams at modern workplaces.“When leaders feel confident that they can produce creative outcomes, their subordinates become more creative. It’s that simple,” said study author Dina Krasikova from University of Texas at San Antonio. Usually, creative leaders have the proper experience to fuel their ideas. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’As a result, they’re more confident. Also, leaders become more confident in their creativity when it is recognised by the senior management. But what surprised Krasikova is that a leader’s creativity and confidence is contagious.“A factor in this is the power of positive thinking,” said Krasikova, an expert in leadership, in a paper published in the journal Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. “Leaders can imbue their subordinates with confidence and creativity just by setting an example themselves,” she added. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe study also found that ineffective or abusive leaders create stressful situations for their employees by humiliating them in front of others, playing favourites or not giving their subordinates proper credit for their work.“When you feel stressed, you feel helpless and your productivity and creativity is diminished,” the researcher said. “Many times this originates with the leader. For example, you might come to work unsure of what you’re supposed to be doing because you get conflicting expectations from your direct supervisor or your boss. The solution is clear roles and communication,” she added.Interpersonal relationships between leaders and subordinates, too, play an important role in the team’s performance. “When a confident, creative leader also has good relationship with subordinates, it has even a stronger impact on subordinates’ creativity,” Krasikova said.
There are seemingly an infinite number of mobile games in app stores these days. So much so that finding good games is often a struggle for consumers. While ranking charts and app store recommendations help, it’s easy to create a game and have it get lost in the sea of options before getting a single user. Some game developers have hacked the process and established suites of successful titles, while others have created one-off hits. Whatever the method, achieving success in gaming will depend on how the market develops in the coming year.Related: Infographic: The Gaming IndustryMarket research found that there are more than180 million mobile gamers in the U.S. as of 2016, and that number is projected to grow by at least another 12 million in 2017. With so many gamers, the opportunity to grow gaming franchises is significant. There are also countless opportunities to leverage the popularity of mobile gaming for marketing efforts, brand development and educational interests.Data shows that market penetration for mobile gaming is only at 55 percent, which means there are plenty of opportunities for developers and gaming companies to reach new consumer segments with successfully targeted games. There are a few proven strategies that have been successfully implemented by established gaming companies.“The app stores have changed significantly over the years and are now more competitive than ever before,” says Ilya Nikolayev, founder and CEO of Tapinator (TAPM), a mobile gaming company. “To control your own destiny, your game’s metrics need to be good enough to allow you to profitably acquire users for your title.” That is the goal of any gaming developer — to create titles that support long term growth. The following strategies will help any company in the mobile gaming space grow in 2017.1. Quantitative approach before creative.Games are a creative and recreational outlet for most players. Most people play for a chance to suspend reality and enjoy experiences they would not otherwise have time for. Many game companies start the development process with a creative approach in mind. If they want to create games that generate value, however, they would do better to start with a quantitative approach.Related: Has the Mobile Gaming Frenzy Caught in India Yet? This Entrepreneur Says Yes.The challenge is assessing whether or not the investment in development will result in the expected financial outcomes. Nikolayev explains how to engage with this problem. “This is a quantity-driven business where each engine allows us to quickly release new titles while minimizing additional development work for each game,” he says. “The main challenge here is building an install base for each game that is sufficiently large so as to monetize the product via advertising.”2. Create fast, iterate often.Another way to accelerate growth is by developing games quickly and making constant improvements. Nikolayev says that Tapinator has worked to develop two key categories of games — full-features and rapid-launch. Full-feature games are titles that keep people engaged with longer form content, while rapid-launch games tend to entice users by capitalizing on current trends.With the ability to make upgrades and additions over time, developers can deliver a simple gaming experience and improve it with time. This is not to say that you should develop a substandard game and improve it as you go. Everything has to start at a high quality. Otherwise, you risk upsetting users. Developing methods for creating games fast, however, helps maintain your competitive advantage.3. Create an ecosystem of apps for marketing.While some games start as singular successes, it is much more common for games to succeed as a part of a larger collection or franchise. Examples like PokemonGo are a rarity, and it is important to note that most one-off hits come from existing entertainment franchises. To ensure the success of a game, it is best to develop and release a series of similar titles under the same developer. In doing so, anytime a player enjoys one of your games, there is another waiting for them to try.“For rapid-launch games, the calculation is much simpler,” Nikolayev says. “We do not utilize paid marketing here and rely exclusively on our own cross-promotion network.” Brands looking to expand offerings in 2017 would benefit from a similar strategy.Related: This Entrepreneur Quit His Job to Start a Company — Any Company — After He Held an iPhone for the First Time. Now His Weight Loss App Has 30 Million Users.Whether you are a developer, marketer, gaming entrepreneur or something in between, these strategies will help you launch more successful brands in 2017. Focus on your audience, their unique needs and what kind of games will keep them engaged. Develop games with their revenue potential in mind, and you are more likely to create sustainable titles that deliver value in the long term. Always consider to how your existing users can inform the development process to ensure future games are just as successful. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals October 17, 2017 5 min read Register Now »