Vest to prevent balance disorder patients falling

first_imgPhoto credit: CASIT (PhysOrg.com) — A vest being developed by scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) could help people with balance disorders to regain their balance. This could cut short the rehabilitation or balance retraining exercise period, reduce the risk of falling, and improve patients’ quality of life. Balance disorders can make you feel dizzy or unsteady, or feel as if you are spinning, falling, or moving when you are not. They can be caused by brain injuries, infections, some medications, or problems with the vestibular system in the inner ear, and can cause a wide range of symptoms including falls, staggering, lightheadedness, blurred vision and disorientation.Developed by researchers at UCLA’s Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology (CASIT), the vest is portable and self-contained, and measures the rotation and tilting of the patient’s body during walking. Wobbling is detected by a series of accelerometers across the shoulders, and if any is found silicone balloons attached to the vest are inflated to give the wearer a physical indication of the imbalance. Pairs of balloons are located above the rib cage, between the shoulder blades, and above the trapezius muscles on the left and right mid-shoulders.The tactile vest system includes an electronic control system providing virtually instantaneous feedback, and patented pneumatic actuators and an air tank. Similar vests have been developed in the past for flight simulators or games, but not for rehabilitation for balance disorders.One of the project leaders, Martin Culjat, said the balloon actuator has a special membrane that enables the pneumatic balloon to be inflated at a high enough pressure that the vest wearer will feel it pushing against the skin. One of the advantages of pneumatic actuators is that they have a faster reaction time (60 ms) than other types of actuators, enabling real-time feedback for the patients. Other types of actuators also have a disadvantage because they can send vibrotactile signals to the body, to which the person can become less sensitive over time.The group’s findings were presented at the 2010 Haptics Symposium last month in Waltham, Massachussetts. Haptic technologies are those that use tactile sensations and controls to interact with computer applications, and they are commonly used for applications such as training for tasks needing hand/eye coordination, or for games in which you see and feel your interactions with images. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Vest to prevent balance disorder patients falling (2010, April 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-04-vest-disorder-patients-falling.htmlcenter_img Explore further Tactile Gaming Vests: The Fourth Dimension In Gaming Reaches New Level Of Pain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Never mind the noise Quantum entanglement allows channel information rate to exceed

first_img Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Entanglement can help in classical communication (Phys.org)—As developed by Claude Shannon, information theory defines channel capacity as the maximum rate at which information can be sent through the channel. This capacity can be mathematically described using a graph associated with the channel. Specifically, a graph’s Shannon zero-error capacity is the maximum rate at which messages can be sent through a noisy channel with zero probability of error. However, the Shannon capacity does not reflect the fact that on atomic scales, nature behaves according to quantum mechanics. Recently, scientists studying asymptotic behavior in entangled sender-receiver quantum systems at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, The Netherlands have identified families of graphs for which entanglement allows the Shannon capacity to be exceeded. Therefore, Briët points out, in the above example the sender could send any one of ten different messages with zero probability of error. Moreover, he adds, their main result shows that this number can be larger than the average number of messages that can be sent with zero error if no entanglement was used, thereby exceeding the zero-error Shannon capacity.”To show that entanglement can sometimes allow a sender and receiver to communicate more efficiently,” Briët continues, “one needs to create a channel for which one can prove that the entanglement-assisted capacity is large, but the Shannon capacity is small. However, proving good bounds on these parameters is notoriously difficult. It took over two decades and a brilliant mathematician to compute the Shannon capacity of the pentagon, which is the graph associated with a particular channel that has only five inputs and outputs! Only for a very few special cases can we currently say something non-trivial about these parameters.”The challenge then, says Briët, was to find a “sweet spot” among these special cases where the researchers can prove good bounds on both the entanglement-assisted and Shannon capacities. They looked at a particular class of graphs often used in quantum computing and information theory – so-called orthogonality graphs – that show that entanglement or some other quantum resource can make some classical information processing task easier. (In an orthogonality graph, points in a two, three or higher-dimensional space are labeled by arrows; a pair of such points are labeled by a line if the associated arrows are orthogonal – that is, in perpendicular directions.) “In this sense,” Briët notes, “these graphs were natural candidates for the type of result we were after. Using available techniques it is a fairly straightforward calculation to show that the orthogonality graphs have very large entanglement-assisted capacity – but it was unknown, and it still is, if the Shannon capacity is any smaller.”Their key insight, Briët says, was that they could slightly morph the orthogonality graphs to end up a class of graphs that lie in the kind of the previously-mentioned sweet spot. “Essentially, what we did is take one of these graphs and throw away three-quarters of it, not just any, but such that we are left with a quarter that has enough structure for us to be able to bound the two capacities. In addition, to bound the two capacities we had to use two quite different techniques.” To show that their graphs had very high entanglement-assisted capacity, they borrowed ideas from geometry, while to show the graphs’ low Shannon capacity they tapped algebra.”To argue that entanglement should be used to speed up communication in practice, our results would need to be strengthened,” Briët acknowledges. “In our setting we made stronger assumptions on how tolerable a little noise is than is reasonable in real-world situations. A next step would be to weaken these assumptions, for example to one where the receiver is happy if he can narrow down what the sender was trying to transmit to a small list of possibilities, as opposed to receiving the messages without ambiguity.””There are close links between entanglement-assisted communication and physical experiments that are meant to test if quantum entanglement is actually a real phenomenon,” Briët notes. “It’s predicted to exist by quantum mechanics, but since that’s only a mathematical model of how nature could work, this doesn’t mean that it has to exist. Convincing experiments were already performed in the early eighties, but because experimental set-ups are bound to have small defects, skeptics argue that no hard conclusion can be drawn from them. Physicists are still trying to come up with ever-better and better experiments that are robust against such defects,” Briët concludes, “so that even if they are taken into account one cannot argue that the results could have been produced if entanglement wasn’t present in the experimental set-up.” Explore further Copyright 2013 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Phys.org. Citation: Never mind the noise: Quantum entanglement allows channel information rate to exceed Shannon zero-error capacity (2013, January 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-01-mind-noise-quantum-entanglement-channel.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Violating the Shannon capacity of metric graphs with entanglement, PNAS published online before print December 24, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1203857110Related: 1Entanglement-assisted capacity of a quantum channel and the reverse Shannon theorem, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory Volume: 48, Issue: 10 Page(s): 2637-2655 Oct 2002 Dr. Jop Briët discussed the challenges he and his colleagues, Dr. Dion Gijswijt and Prof. Harry Buhrman, encountered in determining if for a family of graphs, the entanglement-assisted capacity exceeds the Shannon capacity. (A graph has as many points as there are inputs to the channel. Such a graph is usually referred to as the channel’s confusability graph, because two points are connected by a line if they can be confused with each other when one of them is sent through the channel.) “The two parameters that we wanted to separate – the Shannon capacity and the entanglement-assisted capacity – are similar in the sense that they indicate how effectively one can communicate over a noisy communications channel,” Briët tells Phys.org. “In the entanglement-assisted case the sender and receiver have an extra resource – quantum entanglement – so the latter parameter is always at least as large as the former.” Briët points out that in the two extreme cases these parameters are actually equal: If the communications channel is perfect (i.e., noiseless), entanglement gives no advantage at all. On the other hand, entanglement cannot improve this situation if only a single message can be sent with zero error.In entanglement-assisted communication, Briët explains, there are two parties (sender and receiver) and two resources (a noisy communication channel and a pair of entangled quantum systems). The sender has one of the systems and the receiver the other, and the two parties can perform measurements (that is, experiments) on their respective quantum systems. While the outcomes of such experiments can usually not be predicted in advance, making measurements on entangled systems can still lead to useful results because outcomes of an experiment done by the sender and an experiment done by the receiver, though random, can be strongly correlated. “The entanglement-assisted communication protocol we consider,” Briët adds, “dates back at least as far as the work of Charles Bennett and others1 in 2002.”Suppose the sender can do ten different experiments, labeled with the numbers 1 to 10, and suppose that the possible inputs to the channel are the letters of the alphabet A to Z, Briët illustrates. The sender picks an experiment (for example, experiment number three), and depending on the outcome sends one of the letters – in this example, the letter P – through the channel to the receiver. Because the channel is noisy, the receiver gets a symbol that could be a P, B, D, or R. Based on this list of four letters the receiver chooses an experiment to perform on his quantum system and associates a number between 1 and 10 with each of the possible outcomes. “The punchline,” Briët says, “is that it’s sometimes possible to set things up so that the only possible outcome of the receiver’s experiment is the number of the experiment done by the sender – in this case the number three.” (i) Channel with five inputs (numbers) and five outputs (letters), where an input symbol x is connected to an output symbol a if P(a|x) > 0. Notice that none of the five pairs (0, 2), (1,4), (2,1). (3,3), (4,0) can be confused with one another, as either the first or the second two symbols are nonconfusable. (ii) Confusability graph of the channel, the five cycle C5. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1203857110last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Energetics of the adsorption of ethanol on calcite nanoparticles

first_img Citation: Energetics of the adsorption of ethanol on calcite nanoparticles (2015, April 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-energetics-adsorption-ethanol-calcite-nanoparticles.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Credit: Ben Mills via Wikimedia Commons Nanoparticles have a high surface energy in which organic molecules readily self-assemble on their surface. When organic or biological molecules self-assemble on a nanoparticle, they will often form a type of shell that has its own unique shape and properties. This shell can mask the nanoparticle, changing an inorganic compound, like calcite, into a hydrophobic particle. It also protects the nanoparticle from its environmental surroundings. This is known as organic ligand capping.Prior research has shown that ethanol adsorbs onto calcite by first forming a self-assembled monolayer on the surface in which the hydroxyl group is anchored to the calcite and the hydrophobic tail is oriented outward, forming an organic ligand cap. There is evidence that a second ethanol layer forms, interacting with the hydrophobic tails of the first layer, but there is little quantitative evidence for this two-layer process. This study is the first to report the thermodynamic energetics of these interactions.Wu and Navrotsky accomplish these measurements using direct gas adsorption calorimetry, a technique that was first developed in Navrotsky’s lab. For this study, they used ethanol vapor and four nanocalcite samples of varying particle size.Graphical display of the number of molecules adsorbed as pressure increases shows that the ethanol-calcite system for each type of calcite are type I isotherms. This means that there is an initial adsorption process (chemisorption) that is energetically favored. The differential enthalpy of adsorption per number of ethanol molecules per surface area of calcite (nm2) indicates that the initial interaction of ethanol with the clean surface is the most exothermic (-121.2 +/- 2.4 kJ/mol ethanol) followed by a significantly less exothermic process for the second layer of ethanol molecules. The shape of this enthalpy curve has two distinct plateaus. The first is the initial adsorption of ethanol onto a clean calcite surface, which terminates at about 3.5 ethanol molecules at an enthalpy of 98.3 +/- 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol, in close agreement with theoretical models. Then there is evidence of weak intermediate chemisorption followed by another, less exothermic interaction at the second plateau, at a value less than the condensation of ethanol, which is −42.3 kJ/mol, at 25 °C. The second plateau is likely due to a second, less ordered layer interacting with the hydrophobic ends of the ordered monolayer. Explore further (Phys.org)—Biomineralization, oil recovery, textiles, and catalysis all rely on organic-inorganic interactions with calcite, the most common polymorph of CaCO3. Over the last five years, there has been substantial research discussing qualitative properties of organics adsorbed onto calcite, but little by way of quantitatively determining the thermodynamic interaction between an organic adsorbate and calcite. Di Wu and Alexandra Navrotsky of the University of California, Davis investigated the thermodynamics of ethanol adsorption onto various calcite nanoparticles in an effort to elucidate the organic-inorganic interface and find general properties that could apply to more complex systems. Their work appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Microbe produces ethanol from switchgrass without pretreatment Prior research suggests that there is a spatially thin gap with low ethanol density between the first adsorbed monolayer and the bulk alcohol. Wu and Navrotsky’s thermodynamic data support this model, and suggests that the newly formed hydrophobic nanoparticle may induce short-range order in the bulk solution up to 2 nm beyond the surface of the nanoparticle.In experiments comparing adsorption of ethanol on calcite versus water on calcite, both ethanol and water show an initial, highly exothermic interaction. Both have hydroxyl groups available to adsorb onto calcite, making it reasonable to assume that the initial adsorption onto clean calcite would be similar for both. After this first phase, both become less exothermic; however, ethanol will display a second plateau, providing a step-wise curve, while the curve for water shows only one gradual inflection. Additionally, entropy and free energy calculations for both water and ethanol showed a similarly shaped curve as the enthalpy graphs, and both became less negative as more molecules were adsorbed. However, ethanol preferentially binds to the calcite at low partial pressures, which is likely due to entropy effects.These experiments reveal uniformity among the different types of calcite. Despite differences in size and surface area, they apparently have energetically similar binding sites. All showed a strong initial adsorption followed by evidence of a thin gap and a less ordered layer, and suggests that this type of interaction could be generalized for more complex organic molecules, such as proteins, on a calcite nanoparticle surface. Furthermore, the tight capping of organic ligands may serve as a protective barrier to the nanoparticle core. Aside from providing insight into biological systems, researchers may be able to exploit these properties to make nanoscale devices. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org More information: “Probing the energetics of organic-nanoparticle interactions of ethanol on calcite” Di Wu and Alexandra Navrotsky, PNAS, www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/04/08/1505874112AbstractKnowing the nature of interactions between small organic molecules and surfaces of nanoparticles (NP) is crucial for fundamental understanding of natural phenomena and engineering processes. Herein, we report direct adsorption enthalpy measurement of ethanol on a series of calcite nanocrystals, with the aim of mimicking organic–NP interactions in various environments. The energetics suggests a spectrum of adsorption events as a function of coverage: strongest initial chemisorption on active sites on fresh calcite surfaces, followed by major chemical binding to form an ethanol monolayer and, subsequently, very weak, near-zero energy, physisorption. These thermochemical observations directly support a structure where the ethanol monolayer is bonded to the calcite surface through its polar hydroxyl group, leaving the hydrophobic ends of the ethanol molecules to interact only weakly with the next layer of adsorbing ethanol and resulting in a spatial gap with low ethanol density between the monolayer and subsequent added ethanol molecules, as predicted by molecular dynamics and density functional calculations. Such an ordered assembly of ethanol on calcite NP is analogous to, although less strongly bonded than, a capping layer of organics intentionally introduced during NP synthesis, and suggests a continuous variation of surface structure depending on molecular chemistry, ranging from largely disordered surface layers to ordered layers that nevertheless are mobile and can rearrange or be displaced by other molecules to strongly bonded immobile organic capping layers. These differences in surface structure will affect chemical reactions, including the further nucleation and growth of nanocrystals on organic ligand-capped surfaces.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Women found to be more susceptible to contagious yawning than men

first_img More information: Ivan Norscia et al. more than : gender bias supports the empathic nature of yawn contagion in , Royal Society Open Science (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150459AbstractPsychological, clinical and neurobiological findings endorse that empathic abilities are more developed in women than in men. Because there is growing evidence that yawn contagion is an empathy-based phenomenon, we expect that the female bias in the empathic abilities reflects on a gender skew in the responsiveness to others’ yawns. We verified this assumption by applying a linear model on a dataset gathered during a 5 year period of naturalistic observations on humans. Gender, age and social bond were included in the analysis as fixed factors. The social bond and the receiver’s gender remained in the best model. The rates of contagion were significantly lower between acquaintances than between friends and family members, and significantly higher in women than in men. These results not only confirm that yawn contagion is sensitive to social closeness, but also that the phenomenon is affected by the same gender bias affecting empathy. The sex skew, also found in other non-human species, fits with the female social roles which are likely to require higher empathic abilities (e.g. parental care, group cohesion maintenance, social mediation). The fact that female influence in social dynamics also relies on face-to-face emotional exchange raises concerns on the negative repercussions of having women’s facial expressions forcibly concealed. (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers with Università di Pisa, in Italy has found via observational study, that women are on average twice as likely to yawn after seeing someone else yawn, than are men. In their paper published in Royal Society Open Science the team describes how they carried out their five year study of yawing habits in people and what they learned as a result. Journal information: Royal Society Open Science Explore further Credit: Petr Kratochvil / public domain Citation: Women found to be more susceptible to contagious yawning than men (2016, February 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-women-susceptible-contagious-men.htmlcenter_img Psychopaths may not yawn along with you Everyone knows that yawning is contagious—one person yawning spontaneously can cause another person in the vicinity to yawn even if they are not tired or sleepy. Scientists still do not know why this happens, but it has also been documented in other animals—dogs for example have been seen to yawn after viewing a human being yawn. In this new effort, the researchers found that there is a gender difference in contagious yawning, and they suggest it is related to empathy.The study consisted of the three researchers noting yawning occurrences in the people around them as they lived their daily lives; whether at work, on a train, or sitting next to a family member—every yawn and the contagion it caused was duly noted and added to a database—all told they recorded 1,461 instances of contagious yawning. After five years, the researchers looked at the data and found confirmation of some prior findings, e.g. that yawning contagion becomes more likely when the people involved have closer social bonds—seeing a friend yawn, for example, is more likely to cause mimicking yawns than seeing a stranger do it. But they also found something that had not been noted before, namely, that women are much more susceptible to yawning contagion than are men.The researchers theorize that the difference between genders is tied to empathic abilities—women, they say, are naturally more inclined to empathize with others, especially those that are close to them. Some have suggested that contagious yawning is based on empathy—seeing someone else yawn causes other people to “feel” their tiredness, which causes them to yawn in return. If women are more empathetic, the researchers point out, it stands to reason that they would be more susceptible to empathetic based human behaviors such as yawning. © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Using vouchers found to reduce waste when offering health products to the

first_img Getting health products to people in need in Africa involves dealing with a host of issues, one of which is waste—governments and other institutions find that if they just give free products to people, a lot of those products are never used; many are simply thrown away. To deal with this problem, some organizations have taken to charging people for the products under the reasonable assumption that those that do not need them would simply not buy them. But charging for such products as mosquito netting may prevent many who cannot afford them from getting the help they need. In this new effort, the researchers sought to find out if another type of method might work better, using vouchers that people could redeem for free at a local store.The experiments consisted of going door-to-door in various communities in Kenya offering health products to those who answered. Recipients were given one of three possible options: They could buy the product (a chlorine solution for killing germs in drinking water), they could accept a voucher for it, or they could just have it right there for free. The researchers then followed up later by returning to the homes they had visited earlier, this time requesting to test their water.In analyzing the water samples, the researchers found that those who were given vouchers had just a 1 percentage dip in samples with chlorine compared to those that had received free supplies right away (32.9 versus 33.9). But they also found that they only needed to give out 60 percent as much of the solution when using the voucher system. In sharp contrast, the researchers found that for those who were offered the product for sale, only 12.4 percent had chlorine in their water, indicating that a large percentage of those contacted could not afford the product.The researchers suggest their experiments indicate that adding a small hassle when administering health products can dramatically reduce waste. Not included in the study was the possible emotional impact on the people made to trod to a nearby store to collect their “free” healthcare product. How to deliver drinking water chlorine-free (Phys.org)—A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. has found that offering vouchers as a means of distributing health products to poor people in Africa resulted in less waste than other methods. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, their results and why they believe the voucher method could prove useful in a wide variety of distribution applications. Benjamin Olken with MIT offers a Perspective piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: P. Dupas et al. Targeting health subsidies through a nonprice mechanism: A randomized controlled trial in Kenya, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6288AbstractFree provision of preventive health products can markedly increase access in low-income countries. A cost concern about free provision is that some recipients may not use the product, wasting resources (overinclusion). Yet, charging a price to screen out nonusers may screen out poor people who need and would use the product (overexclusion). We report on a randomized controlled trial of a screening mechanism that combines the free provision of chlorine solution for water treatment with a small nonmonetary cost (household vouchers that need to be redeemed monthly in order). Relative to a nonvoucher free distribution program, this mechanism reduces the quantity of chlorine procured by 60 percentage points, but reduces the share of households whose stored water tests positive for chlorine residual by only one percentage point, substantially improving the trade-off between overinclusion and overexclusion. © 2016 Phys.org Citation: Using vouchers found to reduce waste when offering health products to the poor in Africa (2016, August 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-08-vouchers-health-products-poor-africa.html Journal information: Science Explore furtherlast_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Sea level rise prior to 1990 found to be slower than other

first_img Since approximately 1990, it has been relatively easy to measure sea level height across the planet because of advances in satellite technology. Prior to that time, as the researchers note, it was much more difficult due to a variety of factors such as gravity, land rising and sinking, wind patterns, etc., using tide gauges placed at sites around the world. In this new effort, the researchers have attempted to gain a better understanding of sea level changes during the 20th century prior to the use of satellite technology.To create a better record, the researchers collected tide data and combined it with factors that are known to have caused changes in sea levels, such as shifts in land masses, regional events such as weather changes and, of course, runoff due to melting of glaciers and northern ice. They used all the data they had collected to create a model depicting sea levels in various parts of the world over the past 100 years, and then used the model to calculate the rate at which sea levels were rising on average over the same time frame. As expected, the model showed a rate of 3.1 millimeters per year since 1990, which agrees with satellite reports. But the model also showed that before 1990, the average rate was just 1.1 millimeter a year, which is significantly less than other models have shown. These numbers suggest that sea levels have been rising much faster since 1990 than other models have shown, in some cases up to three time faster.The accelerated rise is believed to be due to more runoff from mountain glaciers, expansion of ocean waters due to warmer water temperatures, and melting of ice in the northern and southern parts of the planet—all due to global warming. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from across Europe has found evidence that suggests the rate of rise in sea levels from approximately 1902 until 1990 was less than other models have shown. This indicates, the team reports in their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, that modern sea levels are rising faster than suspected. © 2017 Phys.org Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Explore further More information: Sönke Dangendorf et al. Reassessment of 20th century global mean sea level rise, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2017). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616007114AbstractThe rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y−1. Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts. Our reconstructed GMSL trend of 1.1 ± 0.3 mm⋅y−1 (1σ) before 1990 falls below previous estimates, whereas our estimate of 3.1 ± 1.4 mm⋅y−1 from 1993 to 2012 is consistent with independent estimates from satellite altimetry, leading to overall acceleration larger than previously suggested. This feature is geographically dominated by the Indian Ocean–Southern Pacific region, marking a transition from lower-than-average rates before 1990 toward unprecedented high rates in recent decades. We demonstrate that VLM corrections, area weighting, and our use of a common reference datum for tide gauges may explain the lower rates compared with earlier GMSL estimates in approximately equal proportion. The trends and multidecadal variability of our GMSL curve also compare well to the sum of individual contributions obtained from historical outputs of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. This, in turn, increases our confidence in process-based projections presented in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.center_img Citation: Sea level rise prior to 1990 found to be slower than other estimates suggesting modern rise significantly faster (2017, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-sea-prior-slower-modern-significantly.html Researchers model differences in East Coast sea level rise Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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When India Africa jazz up the Swiss with music

first_imgNuanced rhythms of India and Africa power the sounds of Swiss jazz giant Malcolm Braff’s contemporary compositions that address the musical concerns of the world rather than the niche musical stage of traditional jazz that grew out of America.Braff, described as one of Switzerland’s best contemporary jazz pianist, was in India with his band, the Malcolm Braff Trio, at the International Jazz Festival in the capital presented by the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR). Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’He played a fusion recital with bassist Reggie Washington and percussionist Stephane Galland from a repertoire of new European arrangements with global sounds.‘I came to India for the first time in 2005 with French-Swiss contemporary jazz maestro Erik Truffaz as a trumpet player. He was touring India. In every city that we visited, we invited local classical musicians to join us,’ Braff said. The local collaborations led to fusion performances, most of which were impromtu. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIt was the beginning of the 42-year-old musician’s engagement with Indian music. ‘While we were playing in Kolkata, we met an upcoming musician duo – Indrani and Apurva Mukherjee – and played their songs with them,’ Braff recalled.The concert later matured into a project when the band returned to Kolkata after two years in 2007 and spent a month rehearsing with them. ‘We created an album of western jazz improvisations with Indian classical music,’ he said. It was not really fusion as the way people understood fusion here, Braff said.‘We were trying to merge two traditions so that they could retain their identities,’ the musician said. The album was special to Braff because ‘there was no bass’.Indian tabla and African rhythms – especially the influences of Abdullah Ibrahim’s Africa and Zulu gospel – creep into Braff’s compositions in subtle ways.‘I am inspired by what I perceived as a child travelling around the world. I was born in Brazil and moved to Africa at the age of two. I spent my childhood in Cape Verde and Senegal,’ he said. Braff says he cannot pretend to be bringing ‘African rhythm directly in my music, but it comes in unconsciously’.Jazz has, over the years, evolved into distinct genres to become ‘Indian, American and European. I don’t really know Indian jazz really well, but I think about musicians applying jazz attitude to their music to express differently and improvise’.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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IITKGP expresses interest in Kanyashree project willing to work with government

first_imgKolkata: IIT Kharagpur is willing to work with the Bengal government on its Kanyashree project and provide technological upgradation for further enhancement of the quality of learning for girls.”We have developed National Digital Library of India (NDLI) where all types of books are available in a single platform. If we can integrate this digital library with the Kanyashree project, we will be able to assess the progress of education of girls and accordingly provide them with the correct input to enhance their education level,” IIT Kharagpur director Dr Partha Pratim Chakrabarti said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsHe further maintained that IIT KGP has come up with a research centre for Artificial Intelligence (AI) on its Kharagpur campus and is coming up with another centre for emerging technologies like AI, Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning at Rajarhat.”Emerging technologies like AI can be used in Kanyashree project and this will improve learning, hence, contribute to the development of a girl child in the real sense of the term. We want to contribute in a big way to this development so we are looking forward to work with the Bengal government,” Chakrabarti said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe project, which was rolled out in March 2013, presently has 4,84,8970 beneficiaries. IIT Kharagpur had once extended their help when there was a problem in the smooth functioning of the project.Kanyashree is the pet project of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee for the upliftment of girls from the poor families and enables them to pursue higher studies, which they are unable to do due to economic constraints. It is a targeted conditional cash transfer scheme aimed at retaining girls in schools and other educational institutions. It also aims towards skill development and prevent child marriage. The United Nations in June last year awarded the Bengal government for its “Kanyashree” scheme.The project won the first place for Public Service at the World Forum out of a total of 552 projects from 62 countries, which were nominated for the award.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Ballot over bullet

first_imgWhat/who inspired you to write the book? Please quote personal instances, if any. Parliament of India has almost an infinite canvas to work on, domestically and internationally. While, what it does within its magnificent red stone building always gets much talked about, little is known of its performance in the international arena. Many people do not know that our Parliament, which is the nerve centre of the largest democracy in the world, is highly admired by other Parliaments. I have personal experience of many speakers, including those of advanced countries, coming to me to enquire what stand I was taking on a particular issue or who I was voting for so that they could do the same. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Although, our Parliamentary system is based on the Westminster model of U.K, yet over the years it has evolved so much that speakers of several Commonwealth counties have told me that in a difficult situation they invariably study the rulings given by the Indian speakers to find a solution. Such is the stature of our Speaker and our Parliament. Needless-to-say, a great deal of hard work goes into achieving and maintaining this position of eminence. I therefore felt the need to write this book and give a glimpse of how it is done. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHow do you define Parliamentary diplomacy? What role does it play in improving foreign relations?Parliamentary diplomacy is the fine art of a parliament engaging fruitfully with other parliaments. It has come of age the world over. In India too it is increasingly becoming an effective instrument of state craft. It is conducted by the Speaker who represents our Parliament in bilateral and multilateral forums, accompanied by members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The discussions are not only on parliamentary affairs but also, in fact and more, on bilateral, regional and global issues. It is a parallel function of the Speaker to strengthen our relationship with the world. The foreign policy pronouncements of our Speaker are the same as that of the Prime Minister, but the style and channels used are different. Parliamentary diplomacy, on its own, has the potential to generate abundant international goodwill. Do you think our Parliamentarian have broader understating of global concerns?Yes. The Constitution of India has empowered our Parliament to enact laws regarding our relation with any foreign country. Our parliamentarians therefore, have to be aware all the time, of international developments.  Personally, I find that many of our members have a sound knowledge of the intricacies of foreign affairs.The decorum in the Indian Parliament is generally questioned by many. As a former speaker, don’t you think there needs to be some sort of moral conduct while discussing important issues like terrorism, internal security etc?There are rules in this regard but rules cannot always be effective. Member of Lok Sabha are elected representatives and, I am sure, most of them would want to get re-elected. Since the proceedings of the House are directly telecast, it is most likely that the members would do what their voters want.  In my view, the demand for decorum, to be effective, should also come from the voters.Shouldn’t there be healthy meeting of minds when it comes to dealing with such important issues?Parliament of India has many beautiful traditions. One of them is that the political parties or independent members in both the Houses of Parliament never ever differ on foreign policy.  This key institution of our polity firmly projects its view of the world in one voice.As the first women speaker of India and as an ex- IFS, how do you think India fares globally?As the first women Speaker of India I attended the 6th conference of the women speakers of the world in Berne and hosted the 7th conference in our Parliament. My interactions in a forum where my predecessors could not participate had its benefits. However, the fact remains that the work of a speaker is gender neutral. As a former foreign service officer who has worked at many levels to formulate the foreign policy, I think India commands respect globally and the Parliament is definitely looked up to.Beyond being an avenue for discussion, such networks can have a long-term impact on the avoidance of conflict. Do you agree?Certainly. Democracy and democratic temper always help in minimising conflict. Power of the ballot is far more than that of the bullet. Our commitment, tenacity and enduring faith in the sublime process of democracy contribute in no small measure to conflict avoidance and world peace.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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Poster row Cops taking steps against errant youth

first_imgKolkata: Kolkata Police is taking steps against the youth who put up a poster in the city that has allegedly fanned religious sentiment.The city police have taken immediate step soon after noticing the poster. The poster has been removed.In a Facebook post, the Kolkata Police has stated that necessary steps would be taken after identifying the people, who had put up the poster and “attempts to fan religious sentiments willnot be allowed”.It may be mentioned that police maintain vigil to avoid any sort of rumours so that the law and order situation in the state does not get disturbed. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsPolice also create awareness among people by circulating messages through social networking sites and urge people not to give ears to any rumour. Chief MinisterMamata Banerjee has also urged common people to not listen to rumours and inform police in case they find any rumour mongers in their area.It may be mentioned that police take immediate steps in this connection and necessary legal actions to ensure that there is no deterioration of the law and order situation.It may be recalled that a fake notification over Eid holidays had got circulated on social media a few days ago. Hence, police are preparing a video to create awareness and urge thatthey should only forward messages on social media only after verifying the truth.last_img read more

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2019-08-31

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